The climate of Rwenzori Mountains National Park (RMNP)is tropical, affected by seasonal movements of the inter-tropical convergence zone and by altitude and topography. There are two rainy seasons each year from March to May and from August to December though these seasons are being altered due to climate change impacts.
The diurnal temperature range is small; the mean maximum and minimum at Bujuku huts being at 70C and –10 C and the seasonal variation is slight, the maximum being lower during the rains owing to the limited sunshine.
One of Rwenzori Mountain’s most important ecological and economic functions is the impact the range has on the area’s hydrological cycle. The range’s permanent streams and rivers contribute to the Nile by way of river Semliki which flows into L. Albert, Rivers Mpanga, Nyamwamba, Mubukuk which flows into Lake George and many other permanent rivers. Agricultural lands surrounding the park are fed partly by the mountain run off and partly from direct rainfall regulated by the Rwenzori
Rwenzori Mountains National Park is a water catchment area
Rwenzori Mountains are one of the largest and most significant water catchment areas in Uganda. The
aquatic ecosystems of the Rwenzoris are diverse ranging from high altitude lakes above 3500 m, fast flowing
montane streams to slow flowing rivers in the lowland areas.
The river running down the mountain range feed the economically important lakes, Edward and George, and
constitutes a major source of the White Nile through the waters of river Semliki which flows into L. Albert.
Agriculture in the areas surrounding Rwenzori greatly benefits from the runoff from the range as well as direct
rainfall which is regulated by the mountains.
Rwenzori is a water tower for the surrounding communities. It supplies water to millions of people, lakes and other protected areas. Changes in environmental quality and pollution especially the physical, chemical and biological composition of water flowing from the Rwenzoris through the communities affect the water quality and quantity. Rivers like Nyamwamba, Mubuku, Rwimi, Mpanga, Nyamigasani and Lamia originate from RMNP and contribute a lot to human lives, fisheries and parks like Queen Elizabeth National Park, Kibale forest National Park , Semliki and Virunga.