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The Ruwenzori are known for their vegetation, ranging from tropical rain forest through alpine meadows to snow. The range supports its own species and varieties of giant groundsel and giant lobelia and even has a 6 metres (20 ft) tall heather covered in moss that lives on one of its peaks.

Savanna grassland/woodland (680-1800m):

Comprise of various plant species (including grasses, shrubs, herbs and trees). The dominant grasses include Cymbopogon, Pennisetum and Imperata, while for the trees and shrubs; Acacia and Combretum. are among the common ones.

Afromontane forest zone (1800-2600m):

In the Afromontane forest zone (1800-2600m), Prunus africana and Podocarpus. were among the common species. Also within this vegetation zone, several natural gaps covered with ferns and grasses were generally observed.

Rwenzori Vegetation Bamboo-Afromontane complex (2600-2800m):

Immediately after a 40 m increment in elevation, bamboo begins to appear forming a bamboo mixed forest complex occurring from 2600-2800m. Several Afromontane forest herbs, shrubs, sedges, grasses and climbers were observed in a few areas within this belt.

Bamboo forest (2800-2900m):

Extensive patches of pure bamboo stands are however, observed within a 100m altitudinal range up to about 2900m in some areas (e.g. between Nyabitaba and Guyoman) of the park.

Hagenia abyssinica mixed forest (2900-3000m):

In the other areas within a similar range (e.g. between Nyabitaba and John Matte) a Hagenia abyssinica forest mixed with Erica is found up to 3000m .

Pure Afro alpine vegetation (3600-4800m):

A change of about 100m in altitude (e.g. in the upper Bigo bog and along R. Bujuku), the density of Erica species reduces and the abundance of Afro alpine trees, shrubs and grass tussocks. This is a pure Afro alpine region and the plant communities. To emphasize the nature of plant life forms in the Afro alpine belt, the five most conspicuous plant
communities include:
i) Dendrosenecio woodland,
ii) Helichrysum scrub,
iii) Alchemilla scrub,
iv) Tussock of grassland and
v) Carex bog
However, the relative importance of these communities varies considerably on different mountains in the Afro alpine region because of edaphic and climate divergences . The Afro alpine zone on Rwenzori Mountain to some extent includes Erica . Rocks covered in mosses and lichens at the highest points (4800-5109m):
Within the Afro alpine region at an altitude of 3900- 4400m (e.g. from Bujuku to L. Irene, and towards Mt. Speke on the way to Congo valley.

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